### Review of Basic Probability

So I understand that I lost many readers for the Sampling uploads.It is a bit difficult to the intensive use of notations and also the need for statistics knowledge. So here I’ll review a [...]

### Introduction to Martingales

This is a rather important topics for anyone interested in doing Finance. Lets look at their definition first. A Martingale is a random process with respect to the information filtration and the [...]

### Multivariate Distributions

Let be an n-dimensional vector of random variables. For all , the joint cumulative distribution function of X satisfies Clearly it is straightforward to generalise the previous definition to join [...]

### Conditional Expectations and Variances

Here we look at an important concept that is an extension from Bayes Theorem, which we discussed briefly. The condition expectation identity says The condition variance identity says Here both [...]

### Continuous Random Variables

We look at the definitions first. A continuous random variable, X, has a probability density function (PDF), if and for all events A The CDF and PDF are related by It is good to know that we have [...]

### Discrete Random Variables

As usual, definitions first. The cumulative distribution function (CDF), of a random variable, X, is defined by A discrete random variable, X, has probability mass function (PMF), , if and for [...]

### Game Theory #2

To illustrate another similar example from last post, now supposed ALL the A-level Candidates met up in the town square. Prior to meeting up, they were all told by the head examiner that if [...]

### Game Theory #1

Over the past two months, I’ve been reading up on Game Theory extensively. It has always been a subject of interest for me since undergraduate days. And I’m glad that I found time to read a bit [...]

### Bayesian vs Frequentist Statistics

Some of you will probably hear of this two terms and wonder what’s the difference. Both of them are a statistical approach/ inference method. Personally, I am a Bayesian and use more of [...]

### What are stochastic and deterministic processes?

During class, I occasionally mention to students that the calculus you learnt is deterministic and they go uh huh. So like what is non deterministic?! I’ll attempt to give some simple [...]

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